What is Iaido
Iaido is the martial art which teaches the use of the traditional Japanese sword (katana). Trainee responds promptly and effectively to sudden attack: begins the action with sword into the sheath and draws from it to give the solution. As a result, the technique is highly refined - any unnecessary movements is removed and the technique is simple and direct . This implies that students of Iaido should try through exercise to gain strength, precision and perfection these forms need on the movements of this art. Traiees in parallel, learn balance, harmony and control of both mind and body. The actual search in practicing the present swordsman is essentially internal.
Iaido is an authentic martial art that proved its martial virtues through a long period of continuous wars and battles, maintained and passed directly from teacher to student through generations in a continuous and unbroken 450 years. The aim of Iaidoka is to develop the spirit that is calm, harmonious with its surroundings and alert, ready to face any situation in life while seeking the fullness through mental and physical effort, wishing to learn the use of the Japanese sword securely and authentically interested to reach the roots of Japanese culture.
Kanji (居合道), in word Iadio consists of three ideograms
The word Iaido could therefore be translated as the ability to adapt and react to the mind and body in a prompt and direct way, staying always in harmony with the surroundings. The term Iai is derived from the Japanese phrase "Tsune ni ite, kyu ni awasu" the meaning of this phrase is: regardless where you are or what you do always need to be prepared for any situation (continuous monitoring).
The Iaido kata performed in one continuous motion. Most of the prepared scenarios have a common theme of the response to an attack by one or more putative rivals, the blade of the sword out of its housing and apply an effective counterattack. The techniques themselves traded many situations, so kata be placed in or near buildings, in the open or among the crowd. The unions negotiate situations sudden attack by several opponents by an unexpected attack during bowing, behind a door or as we stand or move in a dark room or open space.
When the danger has passed, the blade of the sword is placed in its holder and Iadoka returns to its original position in a state of complete concentration and vigilance. This response to tackle different situations in harmony with each environment is expressed through the Japanese term Iai.
Other elements of Japanese culture found in Iaido, is the mental and physical challenge of Zen, the emphasis on ritual and presentation and the need to harmonize with nature.
Proper execution of kata requires perfect control of the body for the techniques to be effective, complete concentration to achieve the ability to see our supposedly adversary, the more vivid is this possible, and above all seamless workou . Our efforts should be focused on perfecting the kata, but a superficial pursuit of the mere application of imitation of movements. The course for practicing Iaido is never finished, but the reward comes following this endless, difficult and exciting way to perfection.
Muso Shinden Ryu (夢想神伝流)
The style of Iaido followed in our school is the Muso Shinden Ryu. Muso Shinden Ryu consists of three levels of training:
First developed in the early 20th century by Nakayama Hakudo (1869-1958), but essentially has roots in the 16th century in Hayashizaki Jinsuke Minamoto no Shigenobu, who developed and systematized the first school of IAI.
The Nakayama Hakudo, who devoted his life to the study of Kendo and Iai , systematized techniques of Muso Shinden Ryu when it concluded that the classic martial arts should be explained again and opened the entire public to survive within the context of a change of season. If the art of the sword is not used today as a martial art practice, emphasized the importance of spiritual practice of this art as a method of self development. The sword is no longer used to cut the enemy , but as a tool to remove the selfish self. From this perspective we practice to perfect the movements of body and spirit in each kata, so they develop the performance and effectiveness of each movement Kenjutsu - Iaijutsu - Iaido.
History of Muso Shinden Ryu
The founder of the school now known as Muso Shinden Ryu, was Hojo Jinsuke Shigenobu or Hayashizaki Jinsuke Shigenobu. His life was rather mysterious and many stories have been designed around this man (or related ). We know that he was born in the province of Sagami (Shoshu) somewhere in the middle of the 16th century , later said that he lived in the province of Mutsu in northern Japan. It is not known exactly how good swordsman he was, but really intensively studied fencing between 1596 - 1601, and then devised a series of technical iai he called batto - jutsu. His style became known by several different names such as : Junpaku Den, Hayashizaki Ryu, Shin Muso Hayashizaki Ryu, Shigenobu Ryu et.
We also know that he made it around Japan in the way of Musha-Shugyo and at that time, attracted many, early in his system. The exact techniques taught remain mysterious as his very life, but very little is certain that should have been relatively simple, practical, and highly combative in spirit.
It is said that in 1616 at the age of 73, he made a second tour of Japan, during which he disappeared. Under the pioneering their influence, many different schools of iai appeared. After his death, the tradition of Shinmuso Hayashizaki Ryu continued by Tamiya Taira-no-Hyoe Narimasa, who was said to be the teacher of Tokugawa leyasu, Hidetada and lemitsu. This certainly must have contributed to the popularity of this school (this style).
Tamiya Narimasa followed by Nagano Murakusai Kinro, 3rd Sokei - Momo Gumbei Mitsushige, 4th Sokei - Arikawa Shozaemon Munetsugu, 5th Sokei - Manno Danuemon Nobusada, 6th Sokei.
The 7th Sokei was Hasegawa Chikara no Suke Eishin. Studied Hayashizaki Ryu taught by Nobusada in Edo, during the period Kyoho (1716-1735), and won the reputation of an exceptional and formidable swordsman. It is said that turned many techniques and it was he who invented the style in which the techniques performed with the edge upwards in obi. Transfer the style back to Tosa province and called it Muso Jikiden Eishin Ryu and there remained and continued until the present day.
The 9th Sokei Hayashi Rokudan Morimasa was underling of Yamanouchi Toyomasa, 4th. As hanshu (district head), and while residing in Edo, he studied the Eishin Ryu Iai in the 8th Sokei Arai Seitatsu. Also studied Shinkage Ryu under the guidance of Omori Rokuro Saemon Masamitsu. This man developed a method iai, which was practiced by the position seiza (Zashiki) and taught Hayashi Morimasa, who later incorporated in Muso Jikiden Eishini Ryu, which today is known as Shoden Omori Ryu.
After the 11th Sokei, is a separation in the teachings, and two subdivisions('annexes'), other schools (branches) created the Shimomura (Shimomura - ha) and Tanimura (Tanimura - ha).
The 16th Sokei of Shimomura - ha was Nakayama Hakudo Sensei. Studied Muso Jikiden Eishin Ryu province Tosa, led by Hosokawa Yoshimasa, 15th Sokei of Shimomura-ha as well as with the Moritomo Tokumi, 17th Sokei of Tanimura - ha.
In 1933 he adopted the name Muso Shinden Ryu Batto - Jutsu for his teachings, and steadily increased in popularity, thanks to the relentless efforts and unwavering dedication of his students.
One of the important requirements of the physical practice of Iaido is the correct movements. Particular attention is given to achieve the correct angle (hasuji) of each cut, according to the technique practiced currently . Also, the trainee should have a clear picture of the situation faced. Each kata based on a script, but if Iaido is performed without real opponent the ability to see someone opponent is very important. With this in mind, metsuke (movement of the eye), must be fully understood from the beginning.
In any form of Iaido the opponent's moves are predetermined. However, in reality the movements may be different or the attack may come from more than one opponents. Therefore the ability of the practitioner is necessary to always be prepared to respond to any unexpected or non-attack with a calm spirit, to find "so zanshin" (complete understanding).
Below is listed the 4 main points that occur in all kata and that can be exercised individually. Great attention should be paid to perfecting them
Zanshin is our concentration during the execution of kata, but the mind clings anywhere in particular, but to remain calm and ready to tackle any situation.
Metsuke is to control the direction of our gaze (translated: staring off into the horizon). The word means: summon look away, in distance - and it is necessary for the development of mental perception of Iaido.
Te no uchi (the grip of the sword). Another feature that deserves serious attention. A good grip of the sword from tsuka (handle Japanese sword), it is necessary for the proper performance of both kata and for all the above movements Nukitsuke, Kirioroshi, Chiburi, Noto.
Iaido Basic Equipment
While we can start practicing Iaido using simple tracksuit and a bokken (wooden imitation Japanese sword , provide the beginnings of your dojo), will then have to have our own standard. This consists of a lightweight cotton shirt (white), a jacket - keikiogi(cotton or synthetic) that is worn over the shirt, a belt -obi(cotton , synthetic or silk different colors) worn closely over the keikogi, which is quite wider than the band chrsimopoiitai Judo, Karate , Aikido and other martial arts, and provides the proper support in case of the sword and a pair -hakama (traditional Japanese trousers creased, cotton or synthetic) .
The color keikogi and hakama should be uniform (black , blue or white). Protective equipment is not used except for optional knee pads. Weapons are three wooden boken Japanese imitation sword, iaito imitation Japanese sword-shaped, length and weight of a real Japanese sword (usually made of aluminum alloy and the edge is not sharp to avoid accidents at the beginning of learning). From a certain level and up is the use shinken (real Japanese sword with a sharp edge).
History of Japanese Sword
Archaeological evidence show/indicate that the swords are in Japan throughout the historical period. The short straight swords imported from China and Korea are among the earliest weapons found in historical (= as historically documented) locations around Japan. After 2000 BC. when these swords first appeared, the Japanese began to build their own swords. Around 700 AC. Japanese swords manufacturers forged the first of what are considered to be today's best made swords. The person who was primarily responsible for the improvement of the project of the Japanese sword and its construction was a blacksmith , the Amakuni. As do others in his profession, meet the huge demand for arms by the locals, provincial and national leaders.
Clashes local rulers for land rights and power issues arise constantly when not fighting each other, the Japanese attacked early era in the Korean peninsula and China, defense against the Koreans and Chinese invaders. Any leader who had surplus stocks of arms had the lead (it was in an advantageous position), therefore followed a long struggle to find manufacturers sword that would improve the art . The most dedicated artisans turned the search for the perfect blade to lifelong preoccupation (goal of life) and even today there are people who have dedicated their lives to the art of making swords.
The long sword in Japan has taken three major forms for each type of sword there's a fighting style that suits the shape of the blade. The original blades, called chokuto or "straight swords", tended to become longer as the metallurgy techniques improved . Although not much is known about how to handle these swords, the longest - without any noticeable weight gain - certainly gave the fighter a greater distance. The size of the handle indicates that held in one hand. The double-edged sword indicates thrusting and hacking fighting style .
The first major change in the size of the sword came in time Amakuni, a style probably created by the same Amakuni. Warriors discovered that, compared with a straight sword, the convex can be pulled out of its case and has a faster more efficient cutting angle. Therefore, manufacturers have developed new techniques in sword forging to create the blade at least as strong as the previous ones. These swords, called tachi, was far away, some nearly 4 feet ( 1.22 m ) and generally used by soldiers on horseback. The long curved sword was perfect for sweeping draw and slash against an opponent pedestrian or equestrian.
Later in Japanese history, most soldiers fought on foot (on foot) or involved in one on one battles . For these men the tachi were too far away to be pulled or used comfortably, so they developed a shorter sword. This sword was the katana, which is currently used by most systems in Iaido. The katana is generally 3-4 feet in length . And although convex, the curve is less obvious than the tachi. They can effectively pulled from the holster in position for horizontal, diagonal or vertical cut and the curve of the blade is driven in efficient slashing cut feature cutting of Iaido.
Reishiki – Outter Expression of Respect
In an Iaido dojo you can practice with a wooden sword (bokken), or training sword (iaito), or even with real Japanese sword with a sharp blade (shinken). Large number of people practicing, all in one place. Following etiquette rules to ensure that nobody is injured . Also followed the ceremonial enhances training to other routes. The teacher may even quicker define skill levels when students line up according to their level. The ritual obeisance regarded as a concentration and focus. When bowing, practitioners show respect to others. Keeping silence students are trained to focus on their attention and practice the study of body language. Cleaning the dojo after exercise leaves it ready for the next section.
History of Seitei
Συγκλήθηκε επιτροπή από τους μεγαλύτερους δασκάλους για να αναπτύξουν ομάδα από Iaido kata, που επρόκειτο να χρησιμοποιηθούν για να διδαχθούν οι νεότεροι σε ηλικία kendo-ka. Έκτοτε, όλοι μπορούσαν να γνωρίζουν την ίδια ομάδα από kata, που λειτουργούσαν ως τα προαπαιτούμενα για τις εξετάσεις. Στα μέσα της δεκαετίας του ’60 η επιτροπή εισήγαγε τα πρώτα 7 kata από τα επίσημα iaidô kata που σήμερα είναι γνωστά ως Seitei-gata Iaido της ZNKR. Αυτά τα kata είτε προσαρμόστηκαν από kata προερχόμενα από ko-ryû (κλασσική παλιά σχολή Budo) ή εξελίχθηκαν στο πνεύμα των kata από διάφορες ko-ryû. Το 1977 η επιτροπή πρόσθεσε 3 ακόμα kata. Βεβαίως πολλά από τα μέλη είχαν αλλάξει μέσα σε 10χρόνια. Το Απρίλιο του 2001 η ZNKR ενέκρινε ακόμα 2 kata στο να προστεθούν στα ήδη υπάρχοντα 10, κάτι που φέρνει τα Seitei-gata Iaidô της ZNKR στον ζυγό αριθμό 12.
Τα kata χωρίζονται σε 3 τύπους (κατηγορίες): Seiza no bu, Tatehiza no bu, και Tachi no bu. Η πρώτη ομάδα των τριών kata εκτελείται από την καθιστή θέση seiza. Το τέταρτο kata είναι το μοναδικό kata της δεύτερης ομάδας, που εκτελείται από την καθιστή θέση tatehiza. Τα υπόλοιπα kata εκτελούνται από όριθια θέση. Τα 12 kata του Seitei-gata Iaidô της ZNKR είναι τα παρακάτω:
Η Muso Shinden αποτελείται από τρία μέρη που περιγράφονται κάτωθι/ παρακάτω: πρώτο, δεύτερο και το μυστικό επίπεδο.
To πρώτο Επίπεδο
Αυτό το επίπεδο αρχικά ονομάζεται Oomori και εισήχθη τον 18ο αιώνα. Φαίνεται να μην υπάρχει καμμία σχέση με το αρχικό στυλ Shigenobu. Οι φόρμες αυτού του επιπέδου ξεκινούν από τη θέση seiza εκτός της 10ης, η οποία ξεκινά με καθιστή θέση. Θα μπορούσαμε να πούμε πως αυτές οι φόρμες είναι μία καθαρά επίσημη τυποποίηση, ή μια επινόηση για την εξάσκηση των αρχαρίων.
Tο μεσαίο επίπεδο
Αυτό το επίπεδο ονομάζεται επίσης και Hasegawa (Eishin) Η τελευταία φόρμα “Nukiuti” ξεκινά από τη θέση seiza, αλλά αυτή είναι και η μόνη εξαίρεση. Τα υπόλοιπα ξεκινούν από την καθιστή θέση “Tatehiza”. Αυτό το στυλ ίσως είναι συλλογή παλαιότερων φορμών, τροποποιημένων ώστε να εφαρμόζονται σε σύγχρονες καταστάσεις από τον Hasegawa Hidenobu, ο οποίος ήταν ένας αξιωματικός στις υπηρεσίες της οικογένειας Tokugawa στη Nagoya.
Tο μυστικό επίπεδο
Στα Ιαπωνικά ονομάζεται "Oku Iai". Χωρίζεται σε δύο τμήματα: καθιστά και όρθια. Το Itomagoi ξεκινά από την θέση seiza.